In this article it's analysed in a critical way the principal hypothesis that along the tropological history have been supported in diverse methodological forms. In the same way, it's tried to look for an unitary treatment to the different tropological phenomenons —metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche— been based on an encyclopaedic vision of the lexicon. This is to say conceiving the lexical information in a linguistic community not as a dictionary, but as an enciclopaedic knowledge. The conection that there is between the meanings, as the lexical structure organized and hierarchic in an arboreal diagram way permits to the speaker of a community to establish some marks or rhetorical index whose purpose is to interpret in a correct form the replacement of a term by other one, ascending or descending through this lexical scals. In consequence, the tropological classification, from this perspective, is established from these characteristics: the distance between substituted term and ascendent or descendent direction.
Tropos; Retórica; Figuras literarias; Metáfora; Metonimia; Sinécdoque; Teoría de la rección y el ligamiento; Gramática generativo-transformacional
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